Résumé : Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a serious type of corrosion as approximately 20% of the total economic losses. Sulfate reducing bacteria and Iron oxidizing bacteria are one of the typical representatives of the anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, which are ubiquitous in natural environments and corrode steel structures. Cathodic polarization has been recognized as an effective method for preventing steels from microbial corrosion. Although cathodic polarization method has been widely studied, the specific properties of cathodic current that influences the bacterial removal and inactivation remained largely unclear. This review is to show the main effects of Sulfate reducing bacteria and Iron oxidizing bacteria on metal decay as well as the inhibition mechanism of cathodic polarization in the study of bio-corrosion.