Résumé : Biofilms and biofouling as important ecological phenomena have important implications affecting the development of invertebrates on surfaces in aquatic ecosystems, with economic impacts in several industries. Microbial biofilms on the surfaces of materials also affect the properties, longevity, and performance. The process of fouling and its prevention has been a major scientific challenge for many decades. Biofilms and fouling on surfaces affects the integrity of the substrutam materials from metals to inorganic and composites. Biodegradation and biodeterioration of materials are discussed here with information on relevant testing techniques tailored to material types. Biodeterioration by microorganisms is also discussed and prevention strategies offered to allow effective management of selective environmental conditions to ensure material integrity.